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KKE: Interview with the Greek Communist Party

">
KKE: Interview with the Greek Communist Party

Thursday, May 13, 2010

Wikinews reporter Iain Macdonald has performed an interview with Dr Isabella Margara, a London-based member of the Communist Party of Greece (KKE). In the interview Margara sets out the communist response to current events in Greece as well as discussing the viability of a communist economy for the nation. She also hit back at Petros Tzomakas, a member of another Greek far-left party which criticised KKE in a previous interview.

The interview comes amid tensions in cash-strapped Greece, where the government is introducing controversial austerity measures to try to ease the nation’s debt-problem. An international rescue package has been prepared by European Union member states and the International Monetary Fund – should Greece require a bailout; protests have been held against government attempts to manage the economic situation.

Teeth Whitening After Care Instructions

Teeth Whitening After Care Instructions

by

Eden BA

Teeth Whitening After Care Instructions

Hollywood smile , Is that all what you need? People today want to follow footsteps of their stars and gain sparkly smile just like them. This is possible with adopting teeth whitening treatment. Such treatments have gained great popularity in last few years as their results are quite good. But according to research work many people ignore after care treatment of teeth whitening. This affects the achieved result and also puts your money invested in vain. Stained teeth are result of cavities occurred due to food particles stuck in your teeth. After teeth whitening treatment you need to take care of your eating habits or else you won t experience long lasting results.

Here are some of the important instructions related to after teeth whitening care:

Once the treatment is done, you are not allowed to eat or drink any beverage till 60 minutes after treatment.

After treatment till 60 minutes you can only drink water.

Till 1 or 2 days after treatment you are not allowed to consume staining food or smoke.

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Some of the eatables you should stay away from are green curry, green leafy veggies, tea, coffee, red wine, tobacco, lipstick, etc.

In case you cannot overcome with habit of having tea or coffee, then it is advisable to make use of straw for drinking purpose.

Rinse your mouth as soon as to complete drinking tea or coffee to avoid further stains.

The home teeth whitening kit allotted to you should be used only once in a day and that to for first 2 to 3 days.

After 3 days you can make use of teeth whitening kit 2 to 3 times in a week.

Relapse of teeth can be prevented by making limited use of home whitening kit.

In order to avoid sensitivity related issues you need to avoid having acidic beverages.

If you are experiencing any kind of sensitivity after treatment then it is advisable to make use of sensitivity toothpaste.

With dentist recommendation you can also make use of pain killer.

You can also gaggle using salty warm water for around three times in a day.

After teeth whitening treatment do not consume cold or hot drink.

In case you are using home teeth whitening kit and are experiencing allergy or swelling then immediately get in touch with your doctor.

Teeth with porous enamel will not experience long lasting results like those with healthy teeth.

Basically a human body comprises of 60 percent of water and this applies to teeth as well. During the course of teeth whitening treatment there causes dehydration in teeth. Your teeth recover it by means of liquid substance you consume and saliva. The reason dentist ask you to avoid acidic and other drinks is somewhat based on this dehydration. If you consume red wine, tea or coffee then penetration of stain becomes obvious and it diminishes the result obtained from teeth whitening treatment.

Welcome to Sparkly Whites one of the leading

Laser Teeth Whitening London

Clinics, having performed thousands of treatments since 2001. The reason, why so many customers have chosen Sparkly Whites, is simple: We offer a professional & affordable clinic service, using the the most Advanced Teeth Whitening systems available, and most importantly we achieve results.for more details visit: http://www.sparklywhites.co.uk/ and ha

Article Source:

ArticleRich.com

James Brown dies of pneumonia

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James Brown dies of pneumonia

Monday, December 25, 2006

James Brown, often referred to as the Godfather of Soul, died in Atlanta due to congestive heart failure, combined with pneumonia. His death at age 73 was announced by his agent. After his dentist noticed something unusual with him, Brown was told to visit a doctor immediately. He was taken into the hospital yesterday for treatment of his pneumonia until his death at around 1:45 AM (6:45 AM GMT). It is not known whether he received a pneumonia vaccination, as recommended for people of his age.

He was born in 1933 and grew up in poverty until he formed James Brown & The Famous Flames. His influence on 20th century music, from funk to hip hop was profound.

Before he died, he scheduled a New Year’s Eve concert series in New Jersey and New York that would help kick off a 2007 tour.

Possibility of new graphic health warnings on NZ cigarette packs

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Possibility of new graphic health warnings on NZ cigarette packs

Wednesday, May 10, 2006

New Zealand Associate Minister of Health Damien O’Connor has proposed that warnings, both images and text, should cover 60% of the packaging of cigarettes sold in the country. New Zealand is required to do so under obligations to the World Health Organisation.

The new images would depict throat cancer, rotting teeth/gums and gangrenous feet. Ashley Bloomfield, Chief Advisor on Public Health, says written warnings aren’t as effective as pictures, and that many smokers do not know most of the diseases that smoking can cause.

If the proposal were adopted, the Ministry would dictate the size and placement of the images to the tobacco companies, but would not subsidise the cost of the changes.

Pennsylvania state trooper found guilty of first-degree murder

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Pennsylvania state trooper found guilty of first-degree murder
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Sep 4, 2017

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Filed in Uncategorized

Friday, March 20, 2009

In the United States, a suspended Pennsylvania state trooper has been convicted of first-degree murder for killing his girlfriend’s estranged husband.

Kevin Foley, 43, faces a mandatory life sentence without parole for slashing to death John Yelenic, a Blairsville dentist who was in the final stages of divorcing his wife, Michele. Foley’s attorney said he plans to appeal the decision. Prosecutors did not seek the death penalty.

Foley previously said he “loathed Dr. Yelenic” and asked another fellow trooper to help kill him. During his testimony, which lasted several hours, Foley claimed he was joking and had no true intention of carrying out the threat, but the Indiana County jury rejected that defense after about six hours of deliberations.

John Yelenic was found dead in his home on April 13, 2006, one day before he was planning on signing his divorce papers. Charges were brought against Foley in September 2007, more than 17 months after the murder.

Foley, who had been on suspension from the Pennsylvania State Police, was himself the final witness to take the stand Wednesday in the trial. Foley insisted he was innocent during his testimony, and even made jokes that the jury laughed at on a few occasions.

“I never made a threat with the intention of carrying it out,” Foley said under cross-examination by the prosecution.

When Senior Deputy Attorney General Anthony Krastek pressed Foley for what was funny about asking another state trooper to help him kill Yelenic, Foley answered, “There isn’t any joke. It’s just my personality, my behavior (with co-workers).”

Prosecutors said Foley killed Yelenic after going to the dentist’s house to confront him over the terms of the divorce. Prosecutors claim Foley slashed Yelenic several times with a knife and pushed his head through a small window. Yelenic bled to death.

“John has his justice tonight,” Mary Ann Clark, a cousin of Yelenic, told MSNBC. “John deserved this; he was the most wonderful person in the world. He died the most horrible death and tonight, this is his night. The system worked.”

Foley had been living with Michele Yelenic for two years at the time of the homicide. Prosecutors previously said Foley and Michele helped perpetuate rumors that Dr. Yelenic molested their son. John and Michele Yelenic had been separated in 2002. Michele Yelenic stood to collect Dr. Yelenic’s estate and a US$1 million life insurance policy, and could lose about $2,500 a month in support if the divorce was finalized, a Pennsylvania grand jury previously determined.

Michele Yelenic, who has not appeared at the trial, may face legal action herself, media reports indicated. A sentencing hearing for Foley is scheduled for June 1.

Deck Furniture For Your Facility}

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Sep 2, 2017

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Filed in Construction

Submitted by: Maxx Johnson

Business owners on the quest for patio deck furniture for their business will earn very quickly that this can be a very tedious task. There are many types of styles made from many different types of materials. Choosing the right material depends on what the resort owner feels his/her clients will like as well as the personal taste of the resort owner shining through. The climate of the area is something to consider as well upon choosing the perfect patio items for your resort. Other contributing factors is whether to have your deck covered or uncovered and of course do not forget your budget.

While planning your strategy in choosing the perfect deck furniture for your resort do not forget to prioritize. You need to pick the type of material your new items will be made of. Common materials used in this venture are wood, rattan, metal, plastic and wicker.

Wooden Furniture

Patio furniture made of wood is very popular and tends to last longer than other materials. Wooden deck furniture can withstand the elements such as rainy weather seasons as well as very hot summers. It is important to treat your wooden outdoor items with water resistant coating materials in protecting it from drying out or becoming damaged. Wooden items are a great choice for entertaining due to the strong foundation of the furniture. The flexibility of various looks with this type of furniture is endless. You can paint the furniture, add new varnish, or maybe even throw in some comfortable cushions to provide a more comfortable feel for your customers. High quality wood products for the outdoors can come with a hefty price tag but if you maintain the wooden deck furniture, it can last a long time.

Metal Outdoor Decorations

If you are limited with your budget metal deck furniture is overall more economical compared to other materials. This type does not require a lot of maintenance. The three types of available on the market are tubular metal, aluminum and wrought iron.

Rattan and Wicker

If you want to provide more of a variety for your customers, rattan or wicker would be a great choice. Rattan and wicker are the second popular material for this purpose, which consist of natural materials. Both materials are flexible allowing you to use the furniture indoor or outdoors. Wicker is in all actuality not a single material it is however, the result of rattan after the material has been weaved along with other materials.

Rattan is a material made from a tree. Rattan is found within tropical regions of Africa, Australia and Asia. The rattan vines are cut from the tree and peeled, then steamed to make them more pliable. Rattan is typically used for weaving materials. Rattan is very susceptible to pain and stains similar to other kinds of woods. It is available in various colors and can be shaped or formed into various styles.

Wicker and rattan furniture is typically less expensive compared to hardwood. If you want to change your investment frequently at your resort without purchasing new the rattan or wicker material would be the best choice for you.

Plastic Furniture

Plastic outdoor furniture is hands down the cheapest option for your resort deck furniture. Plastic objects are very easily maintained. It also stands strong against the natural elements except for strong winds of course. Keep in mind that this type of furniture on average only lasts for one season.

Plastic can break very easily. Make sure you study the safety aspect of this type of furniture in conjunction with your customers. This type of furniture is not recommended for children because it tends to break or tip over. If you are looking for fast and cheap patio furniture then plastic is the best choice for you.

About the Author: Max Johnson of VGS Golf Learn more about

Restaurant Equipment

. Read more about

Deck Furniture

.

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GM and Chrysler receive Canadian loans amid US restructuring ultimata

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GM and Chrysler receive Canadian loans amid US restructuring ultimata
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Sep 2, 2017

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Filed in Uncategorized

Friday, April 3, 2009

General Motors (GM) and Chrysler will receive bridge loans from the government of Canada and the provincial government of Ontario, however no more will be forthcoming from either Canadian or US governments unless the companies can reinvent themselves.

“This is a regrettable but necessary step to protect the Canadian economy. We are doing this on the assumption that we obviously cannot afford either in the United States or Canada a catastrophic short-term collapse.” said Stephen Harper, Prime Minister of Canada.

“We cannot, we must not, and we will not let our auto industry simply vanish. This industry is, like no other, an emblem of the American spirit; a once and future symbol of America’s success,” said Barack Obama, President of the United States. “These companies – and this industry – must ultimately stand on their own, not as wards of the state.”

Chrysler will receive CA$1 billion and may in fact be eligible for as much as CA$4 billion. If Chrysler succeeds in the next 30 days with a restructuring plan it would be eligible for a US$6 billion loan. A part of Chrysler’s restructuring plan must include a partnership with Fiat within 30 days to appease the US administration. Fiat is a supplier of smaller fuel-efficient vehicles, and the merger will help Chrysler to be viable in the North American market. A Chrysler court bankruptcy would inevitably lead to it being sold off.

As a part of Chrysler’s restructuring plans, Tom LaSorda, the president of Chrysler announced that Canadian operations would fold if it does not receive both the US commitment of $2.3 billion of aid and a new Canadian Auto Workers CAW contract to reduce all-in costs by CA$19 per hour. As a result of this announcement Chrysler’s auto sales volume in Canada dropped 23% compared to March of 2008.

GM has until the end of May to restructure its company to receive up to CA$7.5 billion. As part of the companies restructuring, General Motor’s chief executive Rick Wagoner was replaced Sunday with Fritz Henderson, the current chief operating officer. Henderson spoke out on Tuesday that GM has submitted a restructuring plan which would close five plants, and this may be increased to meet the requirements for financial aid. He is in full compliance with Obama’s auto task force to seek bankruptcy if GM cannot negotiate with their unions, bondholders and others.

GM recently brought forward the “GM Total Confidence” program providing consumer purchase protection for customers who lose their job for economic reasons within the first two years from purchase. As a result of Chrysler’s restructuring announcement in Canada, GM’s Canadian vehicle sales volume fell only 17.3% compared to 2008, an increase from the previous month.

GM must reduce some of its legacy costs which include its pensions and union health care costs. A part of GM’s ailments arose from investing in supplying truck and SUVs during an economy of high gas prices when consumers were demanding fuel efficient vehicles.

Tony Clement, Canada’s Minister of Industry, is hoping that the CAW will support the restructuring process and re-negotiate their agreement. Whereas a United Auto Workers negotiator has said, “I don’t see how the UAW will do anything until they see what the bondholders will give up.”

The Obama administration is looking toward bankruptcy proceedings for the automakers, “as a mechanism to help them restructure quickly and emerge stronger. [It will] quickly clear away old debts that are weighing them down. What we are asking is difficult. It will require hard choices by companies. It will require unions and workers who have already made painful concessions to make even more. It will require creditors to recognise that they cannot hold out for the prospect of endless government bailouts.” said Obama.

The auto parts suppliers and IT software exporters in India have already been affected by the declining auto sales. GM and Chrysler software contracts provide US$300 to 350 million a year to vendors in India. As well these two major automakers usually award US$1 billion contracts to auto parts suppliers. “We are worried and closely watching the developments in the US to gauge the impact. The decline in auto sales in the US has already hit the order books of Indian suppliers,” said a Delhi auto parts supplier.

“Going forward, the industry will undoubtedly be smaller, but if our efforts are successful it will be viable and it will support good jobs for Canadians,” said Clements.

Betty Sutton, Ohio’s Congresswoman put forward the CARS act which provides a US$3,000 to 5,000 incentive for those who trade in their vehicle for a fuel-efficient car. “It clearly stimulates the economy, and it gets the consumer into the showroom and gets them buying again. But importantly — and this is what I particularly like about it — it really helps the environment quite a bit in two respects.” said William Clay Ford Jr., executive chairman of Ford Motor Co.

Ford Motor Company has not come forward with requests for assistance.

Since December GM and Chrysler have received US$17.4 billion government loans.

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Stanford physicists print smallest-ever letters ‘SU’ at subatomic level of 1.5 nanometres tall

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Stanford physicists print smallest-ever letters ‘SU’ at subatomic level of 1.5 nanometres tall
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Sep 2, 2017

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Filed in Uncategorized

Wednesday, February 4, 2009

A new historic physics record has been set by scientists for exceedingly small writing, opening a new door to computing‘s future. Stanford University physicists have claimed to have written the letters “SU” at sub-atomic size.

Graduate students Christopher Moon, Laila Mattos, Brian Foster and Gabriel Zeltzer, under the direction of assistant professor of physics Hari Manoharan, have produced the world’s smallest lettering, which is approximately 1.5 nanometres tall, using a molecular projector, called Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) to push individual carbon monoxide molecules on a copper or silver sheet surface, based on interference of electron energy states.

A nanometre (Greek: ?????, nanos, dwarf; ?????, metr?, count) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth of a metre (i.e., 10-9 m or one millionth of a millimetre), and also equals ten Ångström, an internationally recognized non-SI unit of length. It is often associated with the field of nanotechnology.

“We miniaturised their size so drastically that we ended up with the smallest writing in history,” said Manoharan. “S” and “U,” the two letters in honor of their employer have been reduced so tiny in nanoimprint that if used to print out 32 volumes of an Encyclopedia, 2,000 times, the contents would easily fit on a pinhead.

In the world of downsizing, nanoscribes Manoharan and Moon have proven that information, if reduced in size smaller than an atom, can be stored in more compact form than previously thought. In computing jargon, small sizing results to greater speed and better computer data storage.

“Writing really small has a long history. We wondered: What are the limits? How far can you go? Because materials are made of atoms, it was always believed that if you continue scaling down, you’d end up at that fundamental limit. You’d hit a wall,” said Manoharan.

In writing the letters, the Stanford team utilized an electron‘s unique feature of “pinball table for electrons” — its ability to bounce between different quantum states. In the vibration-proof basement lab of Stanford’s Varian Physics Building, the physicists used a Scanning tunneling microscope in encoding the “S” and “U” within the patterns formed by the electron’s activity, called wave function, arranging carbon monoxide molecules in a very specific pattern on a copper or silver sheet surface.

“Imagine [the copper as] a very shallow pool of water into which we put some rocks [the carbon monoxide molecules]. The water waves scatter and interfere off the rocks, making well defined standing wave patterns,” Manoharan noted. If the “rocks” are placed just right, then the shapes of the waves will form any letters in the alphabet, the researchers said. They used the quantum properties of electrons, rather than photons, as their source of illumination.

According to the study, the atoms were ordered in a circular fashion, with a hole in the middle. A flow of electrons was thereafter fired at the copper support, which resulted into a ripple effect in between the existing atoms. These were pushed aside, and a holographic projection of the letters “SU” became visible in the space between them. “What we did is show that the atom is not the limit — that you can go below that,” Manoharan said.

“It’s difficult to properly express the size of their stacked S and U, but the equivalent would be 0.3 nanometres. This is sufficiently small that you could copy out the Encyclopaedia Britannica on the head of a pin not just once, but thousands of times over,” Manoharan and his nanohologram collaborator Christopher Moon explained.

The team has also shown the salient features of the holographic principle, a property of quantum gravity theories which resolves the black hole information paradox within string theory. They stacked “S” and the “U” – two layers, or pages, of information — within the hologram.

The team stressed their discovery was concentrating electrons in space, in essence, a wire, hoping such a structure could be used to wire together a super-fast quantum computer in the future. In essence, “these electron patterns can act as holograms, that pack information into subatomic spaces, which could one day lead to unlimited information storage,” the study states.

The “Conclusion” of the Stanford article goes as follows:

According to theory, a quantum state can encode any amount of information (at zero temperature), requiring only sufficiently high bandwidth and time in which to read it out. In practice, only recently has progress been made towards encoding several bits into the shapes of bosonic single-photon wave functions, which has applications in quantum key distribution. We have experimentally demonstrated that 35 bits can be permanently encoded into a time-independent fermionic state, and that two such states can be simultaneously prepared in the same area of space. We have simulated hundreds of stacked pairs of random 7 times 5-pixel arrays as well as various ideas for pathological bit patterns, and in every case the information was theoretically encodable. In all experimental attempts, extending down to the subatomic regime, the encoding was successful and the data were retrieved at 100% fidelity. We believe the limitations on bit size are approxlambda/4, but surprisingly the information density can be significantly boosted by using higher-energy electrons and stacking multiple pages holographically. Determining the full theoretical and practical limits of this technique—the trade-offs between information content (the number of pages and bits per page), contrast (the number of measurements required per bit to overcome noise), and the number of atoms in the hologram—will involve further work.Quantum holographic encoding in a two-dimensional electron gas, Christopher R. Moon, Laila S. Mattos, Brian K. Foster, Gabriel Zeltzer & Hari C. Manoharan

The team is not the first to design or print small letters, as attempts have been made since as early as 1960. In December 1959, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Richard Feynman, who delivered his now-legendary lecture entitled “There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom,” promised new opportunities for those who “thought small.”

Feynman was an American physicist known for the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, the theory of quantum electrodynamics and the physics of the superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium, as well as work in particle physics (he proposed the parton model).

Feynman offered two challenges at the annual meeting of the American Physical Society, held that year in Caltech, offering a $1000 prize to the first person to solve each of them. Both challenges involved nanotechnology, and the first prize was won by William McLellan, who solved the first. The first problem required someone to build a working electric motor that would fit inside a cube 1/64 inches on each side. McLellan achieved this feat by November 1960 with his 250-microgram 2000-rpm motor consisting of 13 separate parts.

In 1985, the prize for the second challenge was claimed by Stanford Tom Newman, who, working with electrical engineering professor Fabian Pease, used electron lithography. He wrote or engraved the first page of Charles Dickens’ A Tale of Two Cities, at the required scale, on the head of a pin, with a beam of electrons. The main problem he had before he could claim the prize was finding the text after he had written it; the head of the pin was a huge empty space compared with the text inscribed on it. Such small print could only be read with an electron microscope.

In 1989, however, Stanford lost its record, when Donald Eigler and Erhard Schweizer, scientists at IBM’s Almaden Research Center in San Jose were the first to position or manipulate 35 individual atoms of xenon one at a time to form the letters I, B and M using a STM. The atoms were pushed on the surface of the nickel to create letters 5nm tall.

In 1991, Japanese researchers managed to chisel 1.5 nm-tall characters onto a molybdenum disulphide crystal, using the same STM method. Hitachi, at that time, set the record for the smallest microscopic calligraphy ever designed. The Stanford effort failed to surpass the feat, but it, however, introduced a novel technique. Having equaled Hitachi’s record, the Stanford team went a step further. They used a holographic variation on the IBM technique, for instead of fixing the letters onto a support, the new method created them holographically.

In the scientific breakthrough, the Stanford team has now claimed they have written the smallest letters ever – assembled from subatomic-sized bits as small as 0.3 nanometers, or roughly one third of a billionth of a meter. The new super-mini letters created are 40 times smaller than the original effort and more than four times smaller than the IBM initials, states the paper Quantum holographic encoding in a two-dimensional electron gas, published online in the journal Nature Nanotechnology. The new sub-atomic size letters are around a third of the size of the atomic ones created by Eigler and Schweizer at IBM.

A subatomic particle is an elementary or composite particle smaller than an atom. Particle physics and nuclear physics are concerned with the study of these particles, their interactions, and non-atomic matter. Subatomic particles include the atomic constituents electrons, protons, and neutrons. Protons and neutrons are composite particles, consisting of quarks.

“Everyone can look around and see the growing amount of information we deal with on a daily basis. All that knowledge is out there. For society to move forward, we need a better way to process it, and store it more densely,” Manoharan said. “Although these projections are stable — they’ll last as long as none of the carbon dioxide molecules move — this technique is unlikely to revolutionize storage, as it’s currently a bit too challenging to determine and create the appropriate pattern of molecules to create a desired hologram,” the authors cautioned. Nevertheless, they suggest that “the practical limits of both the technique and the data density it enables merit further research.”

In 2000, it was Hari Manoharan, Christopher Lutz and Donald Eigler who first experimentally observed quantum mirage at the IBM Almaden Research Center in San Jose, California. In physics, a quantum mirage is a peculiar result in quantum chaos. Their study in a paper published in Nature, states they demonstrated that the Kondo resonance signature of a magnetic adatom located at one focus of an elliptically shaped quantum corral could be projected to, and made large at the other focus of the corral.

Stanford physicists print smallest-ever letters ‘SU’ at subatomic level of 1.5 nanometres tall

">
Stanford physicists print smallest-ever letters ‘SU’ at subatomic level of 1.5 nanometres tall
No Comments
Sep 2, 2017

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Filed in Uncategorized

Wednesday, February 4, 2009

A new historic physics record has been set by scientists for exceedingly small writing, opening a new door to computing‘s future. Stanford University physicists have claimed to have written the letters “SU” at sub-atomic size.

Graduate students Christopher Moon, Laila Mattos, Brian Foster and Gabriel Zeltzer, under the direction of assistant professor of physics Hari Manoharan, have produced the world’s smallest lettering, which is approximately 1.5 nanometres tall, using a molecular projector, called Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) to push individual carbon monoxide molecules on a copper or silver sheet surface, based on interference of electron energy states.

A nanometre (Greek: ?????, nanos, dwarf; ?????, metr?, count) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth of a metre (i.e., 10-9 m or one millionth of a millimetre), and also equals ten Ångström, an internationally recognized non-SI unit of length. It is often associated with the field of nanotechnology.

“We miniaturised their size so drastically that we ended up with the smallest writing in history,” said Manoharan. “S” and “U,” the two letters in honor of their employer have been reduced so tiny in nanoimprint that if used to print out 32 volumes of an Encyclopedia, 2,000 times, the contents would easily fit on a pinhead.

In the world of downsizing, nanoscribes Manoharan and Moon have proven that information, if reduced in size smaller than an atom, can be stored in more compact form than previously thought. In computing jargon, small sizing results to greater speed and better computer data storage.

“Writing really small has a long history. We wondered: What are the limits? How far can you go? Because materials are made of atoms, it was always believed that if you continue scaling down, you’d end up at that fundamental limit. You’d hit a wall,” said Manoharan.

In writing the letters, the Stanford team utilized an electron‘s unique feature of “pinball table for electrons” — its ability to bounce between different quantum states. In the vibration-proof basement lab of Stanford’s Varian Physics Building, the physicists used a Scanning tunneling microscope in encoding the “S” and “U” within the patterns formed by the electron’s activity, called wave function, arranging carbon monoxide molecules in a very specific pattern on a copper or silver sheet surface.

“Imagine [the copper as] a very shallow pool of water into which we put some rocks [the carbon monoxide molecules]. The water waves scatter and interfere off the rocks, making well defined standing wave patterns,” Manoharan noted. If the “rocks” are placed just right, then the shapes of the waves will form any letters in the alphabet, the researchers said. They used the quantum properties of electrons, rather than photons, as their source of illumination.

According to the study, the atoms were ordered in a circular fashion, with a hole in the middle. A flow of electrons was thereafter fired at the copper support, which resulted into a ripple effect in between the existing atoms. These were pushed aside, and a holographic projection of the letters “SU” became visible in the space between them. “What we did is show that the atom is not the limit — that you can go below that,” Manoharan said.

“It’s difficult to properly express the size of their stacked S and U, but the equivalent would be 0.3 nanometres. This is sufficiently small that you could copy out the Encyclopaedia Britannica on the head of a pin not just once, but thousands of times over,” Manoharan and his nanohologram collaborator Christopher Moon explained.

The team has also shown the salient features of the holographic principle, a property of quantum gravity theories which resolves the black hole information paradox within string theory. They stacked “S” and the “U” – two layers, or pages, of information — within the hologram.

The team stressed their discovery was concentrating electrons in space, in essence, a wire, hoping such a structure could be used to wire together a super-fast quantum computer in the future. In essence, “these electron patterns can act as holograms, that pack information into subatomic spaces, which could one day lead to unlimited information storage,” the study states.

The “Conclusion” of the Stanford article goes as follows:

According to theory, a quantum state can encode any amount of information (at zero temperature), requiring only sufficiently high bandwidth and time in which to read it out. In practice, only recently has progress been made towards encoding several bits into the shapes of bosonic single-photon wave functions, which has applications in quantum key distribution. We have experimentally demonstrated that 35 bits can be permanently encoded into a time-independent fermionic state, and that two such states can be simultaneously prepared in the same area of space. We have simulated hundreds of stacked pairs of random 7 times 5-pixel arrays as well as various ideas for pathological bit patterns, and in every case the information was theoretically encodable. In all experimental attempts, extending down to the subatomic regime, the encoding was successful and the data were retrieved at 100% fidelity. We believe the limitations on bit size are approxlambda/4, but surprisingly the information density can be significantly boosted by using higher-energy electrons and stacking multiple pages holographically. Determining the full theoretical and practical limits of this technique—the trade-offs between information content (the number of pages and bits per page), contrast (the number of measurements required per bit to overcome noise), and the number of atoms in the hologram—will involve further work.Quantum holographic encoding in a two-dimensional electron gas, Christopher R. Moon, Laila S. Mattos, Brian K. Foster, Gabriel Zeltzer & Hari C. Manoharan

The team is not the first to design or print small letters, as attempts have been made since as early as 1960. In December 1959, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Richard Feynman, who delivered his now-legendary lecture entitled “There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom,” promised new opportunities for those who “thought small.”

Feynman was an American physicist known for the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, the theory of quantum electrodynamics and the physics of the superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium, as well as work in particle physics (he proposed the parton model).

Feynman offered two challenges at the annual meeting of the American Physical Society, held that year in Caltech, offering a $1000 prize to the first person to solve each of them. Both challenges involved nanotechnology, and the first prize was won by William McLellan, who solved the first. The first problem required someone to build a working electric motor that would fit inside a cube 1/64 inches on each side. McLellan achieved this feat by November 1960 with his 250-microgram 2000-rpm motor consisting of 13 separate parts.

In 1985, the prize for the second challenge was claimed by Stanford Tom Newman, who, working with electrical engineering professor Fabian Pease, used electron lithography. He wrote or engraved the first page of Charles Dickens’ A Tale of Two Cities, at the required scale, on the head of a pin, with a beam of electrons. The main problem he had before he could claim the prize was finding the text after he had written it; the head of the pin was a huge empty space compared with the text inscribed on it. Such small print could only be read with an electron microscope.

In 1989, however, Stanford lost its record, when Donald Eigler and Erhard Schweizer, scientists at IBM’s Almaden Research Center in San Jose were the first to position or manipulate 35 individual atoms of xenon one at a time to form the letters I, B and M using a STM. The atoms were pushed on the surface of the nickel to create letters 5nm tall.

In 1991, Japanese researchers managed to chisel 1.5 nm-tall characters onto a molybdenum disulphide crystal, using the same STM method. Hitachi, at that time, set the record for the smallest microscopic calligraphy ever designed. The Stanford effort failed to surpass the feat, but it, however, introduced a novel technique. Having equaled Hitachi’s record, the Stanford team went a step further. They used a holographic variation on the IBM technique, for instead of fixing the letters onto a support, the new method created them holographically.

In the scientific breakthrough, the Stanford team has now claimed they have written the smallest letters ever – assembled from subatomic-sized bits as small as 0.3 nanometers, or roughly one third of a billionth of a meter. The new super-mini letters created are 40 times smaller than the original effort and more than four times smaller than the IBM initials, states the paper Quantum holographic encoding in a two-dimensional electron gas, published online in the journal Nature Nanotechnology. The new sub-atomic size letters are around a third of the size of the atomic ones created by Eigler and Schweizer at IBM.

A subatomic particle is an elementary or composite particle smaller than an atom. Particle physics and nuclear physics are concerned with the study of these particles, their interactions, and non-atomic matter. Subatomic particles include the atomic constituents electrons, protons, and neutrons. Protons and neutrons are composite particles, consisting of quarks.

“Everyone can look around and see the growing amount of information we deal with on a daily basis. All that knowledge is out there. For society to move forward, we need a better way to process it, and store it more densely,” Manoharan said. “Although these projections are stable — they’ll last as long as none of the carbon dioxide molecules move — this technique is unlikely to revolutionize storage, as it’s currently a bit too challenging to determine and create the appropriate pattern of molecules to create a desired hologram,” the authors cautioned. Nevertheless, they suggest that “the practical limits of both the technique and the data density it enables merit further research.”

In 2000, it was Hari Manoharan, Christopher Lutz and Donald Eigler who first experimentally observed quantum mirage at the IBM Almaden Research Center in San Jose, California. In physics, a quantum mirage is a peculiar result in quantum chaos. Their study in a paper published in Nature, states they demonstrated that the Kondo resonance signature of a magnetic adatom located at one focus of an elliptically shaped quantum corral could be projected to, and made large at the other focus of the corral.

Only One Dilemma For Foreigners Visiting Malta This Summer Rocky Or Sandy Beach?}

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Aug 26, 2017

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Submitted by: Luciano Borg

As temperatures hit 40C on the tiny Mediterranean Island of Malta, locals and tourists alike are faced with only one dilemma where shall we go today, sandy or rocky beach? Although hotels pools are full up with tourists bathing and licking the sun, Maltas beaches are still the main attraction for sea lovers.

According to some, there is a latent negative touch to going to a sandy beach and enjoying oneself. No matter how hard you wash and scrub there is an inevitablilty that the microscopic specks will keep coming out of your body for days on end.

And try, if you can, to clean the inside of your car afterwards. Ouch. Still, people enjoy the cushioning effect the sandy beach gives them while they sunbathe and, let’s face it, what better way is there to keep the kids occupied than hours of endless sandcastle creating.

Malta’s sandy beaches are often small and hidden away in sheltered little bays difficult to reach, but there are also some big ones where the holidaying crowds gather in their multitudes to spend their days among the ice-cream vendors, the forest of umbrellas and the fast-food outlets. Ghadira Bay, Ghajn Tuffieha Bay, Golden Sands, Paradise Bay, Pretty Bay and Armier Bay provide the main sandy beaches on Malta, while Xlendi Bay, Marsalforn and the splendid Ramla l-Hamra beckon on Gozo. There are also two sandy beaches on Comino – Santa Marija Bay and San Niklaw Bay.

The demand for sandy beaches is ever so vociferous that the Maltese authorities have also wisely – and quite successfully at St George’s Bay and Bugibba – embarked on perched-beach projects intended for the enlargement of some of the smaller sandy beaches and the conversion into sandy patches of rocky shores in a concentrated effort to fulfill demand.

As I said, picking sand out of your orifices for weeks on end might not be everyone’s cup of tea. But for those who love them, Malta has just about enough beaches to make your holiday perfect.

Although sand is not Maltas biggest natural resource there are still plenty of beaches to choose from, most of which are located in the north of Malta and a couple in Gozo. Getting to the ones in the north of Malta is best done by car if you are renting or by bus if not. Others, like St Georges Bay, are more centrally located. Your best bet is to check out a map and see which one is closest to you!

But for those of you who are not overly enthused by the idea of sand in every crevice, Malta has an abundant supply of rocky beaches. These places which are literally littered around the island are ideal locations for taking your daily dip, towelling off and relaxing without the worry of sand getting in your ears.

Of course it is a question of preference, the sandy beach vs rocky beach dilemma which spoils visitors to Malta for choice. Some of the top rocky beaches in Malta are Anchor Bay, Ghar Lapsi, Marsascala Bay, Marsaxlokk Bay, Mistra Bay, Salina Bay, St Thomas Bay, St Paul’s Bay and Sliema sea front.

There are also great rocky beaches at Marsalforn Bay and Xlendi Bay in Gozo, while Comino, that strange, barren, little island caught mid-sea between Malta and Gozo, boasts, in its Blue Lagoon, perhaps the clearest water off a rocky beach anywhere in the Mediterranean. Most rocky beaches have very good facilities for showering, dining and relaxing. If you can’t build sand castles, you can hire boats and go water skiing, while some of the top diving clubs operate from the rocky shores at very reasonable rates.

In the evening, it is a joy to go back there and watch anglers hooking some interesting-looking fish from the very spot you were swimming in a few hours earlier. The late-evening barbeque parties come next with their heavy cases of cool beer and enough food to feed a regiment. It is a completely different scene from daytime, one that openly dictates the tempo of life in the Mediterranean – allegro andante. It will be difficult switching back to that other tempo you left behind….if you can even remember it.

While sand may not be Maltas strong point, rocks are something we have a plenty. So finding a rocky beach is generally as simple as stepping outside your front door. The vast majority of Maltas shoreline is open to the public and you will normally find people swimming from just about every available rocky outcrop during the summer months. Just be careful of any warning signs that may be in place. And of the sharp bits.

About the Author: Malta Holiday Guide

101Malta.com

takes an honest look at the many, many things you can do whilst in Malta and Gozo, ranging from the adventurous to the relaxing and from the culinary to the cultural.

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